Ingredients Definitions

We use only ingredients that are from approved suppliers that have passed our audit program for quality, nutritional value and food safety. Wherever possible, we select local or North American suppliers. All ingredients are subject to our comprehensive monitoring program, which includes testing of samples and evaluation of ingredients upon receipt into our facility.


Acai Berries
A berry related to the blueberry or cranberry, this dark coloured fruit is rich in antioxidants (anthocyanins and flavonoids), and an excellent source of dietary fiber that promotes digestive health.

Alfalfa (suncured)
Sourced from Canadian alfalfa growers, this product provides dietary fiber necessary for gut function and mobility, as well as formation of good stools. Also contains chlorophyll and beta-carotene antioxidants, and vitamin D (needed for proper use of minerals such as calcium by the body).

Algae Schizochytrium
A natural source of DHA, Docosahexaenoic Acid (an omega-3 essential fatty acid) that is fish-free and vegetarian. DHA is helpful in promoting the proper development of brain and eyes in young growing animals, as well as supporting cognitive function in senior animals.

Digestive enhancer, it also promotes lactation, and has antimicrobial properties. Provides a palatable flavour.

A popular fruit in Canada and around the world, apples are an excellent source of pectin, a type of dietary fiber that promotes healthy gastrointestinal tract function. Apples also contain phenolic compounds that provide antioxidative activity to protect cells.

Ascorbic Acid
A stabilized form of vitamin C, which acts as an antioxidant to protect cells from free radical damage. It also functions in tissue maintenance for skin and bones.
Aspergillus oryzae fermentation product
See Digestive Enzymes


Barley, Whole (GI 48)
Whole barley is the entire barley kernel chopped or ground. An excellent choice for diabetic pet diets due to its unique nutritional make-up, modest amounts of slowly-digested starch and the soluble fiber ß-glucan.

Barley, Pearled (GI 45)
Pearled barley is produced from whole seeds that have been scoured to remove the seed hull and bran. An excellent choice for specialized obesity and diabetic pet diets due to its unique nutritional make-up, modest amounts of slowly digested starch and the soluble fiber ß-glucan.

The clean flesh derived from cattle and is limited to that part of the striated muscle which is skeletal or that which is found in the tongue or heart, with or without the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of the skin, sinew, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh. An excellent source of high quality protein.

Beet Pulp (sugar removed)
A source of dietary fiber, it provides both soluble and insoluble fibers to promote healthy gastrointestinal trace and movement of the gut contents.

Beta Carotene
An antioxidant carotenoid, it is a precursor to vitamin A. It works with other antioxidants such as vitamins E and C, within the cells of the body to control dangerous free radicals.

Bifdobacterium bifidum
See Live Micro-organism.

Also known as vitamin B8, it is involved in processing of the essential fatty acids, use of energy and maintenance of the skin and coat. Biotin is also essential in the proper functioning of the nervous system that allows organs and cells within the body to communicate.

Blueberries are rich in vitamins A & C, potassium, dietary fiber and various carotenoids which are valuable anti-oxidants. Blueberries provide flavor, taste and color of fresh fruits.

Bromelain (from Pineapple)
See Digestive Enzymes

Brown Rice/Ground Brown Rice (GI 66)
Ground Brown Rice is the entire product obtained in grinding the rice kernels after the hulls have been removed. An excellent source of complex carbohydrates, provides quick energy and is loaded with B vitamins and minerals.


Calcium Carbonate
A natural source of calcium and other minerals essential to development of healthy teeth and bones

Calcium Iodate
Source of iodine, a mineral used in production of hormones in the body, which regulate growth and weight control.

Calcium Pantothenate
Source of pantothenic acid, or vitamin B5. An essential factor in the use of nutrients for energy, production of blood cells and compounds that signal in the body.

Calcium Sulphate
Used in feline diets as a source of calcium, also contributes to the proper urinary tract pH required for prevention of feline urological syndrome.

Canola Meal (GI 53)
A Canadian crop, provides a source of protein and energy, hypo-allergenic and highly digestible. Also provides some vitamins and minerals, as well as fiber.

Canola Oil
A non-rendered fat, naturally preserved. Provides essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for energy, healthy skin & coat, good immune function.

Carrots are an excellent source of fiber and minerals. Also a good natural source of beta-carotene, an antioxidant essential for neutralizing free radicals.

Antiseptic, anti-fungal and anti-viral properties (especially effective against E. coli O157:H7), immune system enhancer

Cellulose (Powdered)
Source of fibre which is a key component of the proven hairball control system using in Nutreco pet formulas. Promotes a healthy digestive system by encouraging movement of food along the GI tract.

Calms stress and anxiety, boosts immune system functioning, reduces gas formation and relaxes the lining of the digestive tract

Chicken (Deboned Fresh)
Chicken is the clean combination of skin and flesh derived from whole chickens. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and fatty acids and is the first ingredient in any of our chicken based diets for cats and dogs.

Chicken Fat
Chicken fat is used to coat our foods after cooking as a highly palatable natural flavor that helps achieve the proper fatty acid profile necessary for healthy skin and coat. It is especially good for cats, because it contains Arachidonic Acid, a fatty acid they cannot produce on their own.

Chicken Liver
Chicken Liver, as the name implies, is liver specifically from chicken. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and a rich source of vitamins A, D and virtually all of the B vitamins.

Chicken Meal
Cooked, dehydrated chicken, with water content reduced. Highly digestible protein source, provides essential amino acids, balanced calcium and phosphorus, and some omega fatty acids.

Chicory Root Extract (Inulin)FOS
A prebiotic fiber, Chicory Root Extract contains high levels of Fructooligosaccharides. These FOS provide nutritional support for the healthy microorganisms in the digestive tract.

Choline Chloride
Another of the B vitamins, choline controls the metabolism of other nutrients such as vitamin A and the amino acids. It also ensures proper function of the nervous system.

Chondroitin Sulfate
Chondroitin, along with Glucosamine, work to rebuild damaged joint tissues, reducing the symptoms of arthritis and other bone and joint disorders.

Copper Proteinate
A chelated source of copper, an essential mineral for manufacture of red blood cells. Copper is also an element in reactions within the cells that produce energy. It is involved in the pigmentation of hair.

We add cranberries to our cat food as an excellent source of vitamin C and unique natural source of tannins (astringents found in plants) that help prevent harmful bacteria from thriving in the urinary tract.

Cranberry Extract Powder
Cranberry extract powder is the dehydrated form of the cranberry plant and is an excellent source of vitamin C. Dried or dehydrated fruits are nutrient dense and allow us to use more than whole fruits, since they have significantly lower water content than whole/fresh fruits.


Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega-3 essential fatty acid important for neural development of young mammals. DHA is a major structural component of the brain as well as the most abundant fatty acid in the brain. It plays a vital role in the development of the central nervous system and retinal function for vision.

Dicalcium Phosphate
A mineral supplement which contains calcium and phosphorus in balance. These two minerals work together to ensure healthy structure of the bones and teeth.

Digestive Enzymes
Papain (from Papaya) and Bromelain (from Pineapple) are natural enzymes that aid in the digestion of proteins and fats from the diets. Aspergillus oryzae fermentation product contains high levels of key digestive enzymes for the breakdown and absorption of carbohydrates.

DL- Methionine
An essential amino acid, required for proper construction of proteins in muscle and other tissue. Methionine also is helpful for creation of an acidic urine pH in cats, for prevention of urinary tract crystals. Provides a source of dietary sulphur, a key molecule in formation of healthy skin cells.

Dried Brewers Yeast
The dried non-fermentative, non-extracted yeast resulting as a by-product from the brewing of beer and ale. It must contain not less than 35% crude protein, and is an excellent source of B complex vitamins. Brewer's yeast is usually added to foods to enhance palatability.

Duck(Deboned Fresh)
Duck is the clean combination of skin and flesh without bone derived from the parts or whole carcasses of ducks. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and essential fatty acids.


Egg Whole Dried
Dried, whole, cooked eggs (minus shells) are often added to pet foods to increase the protein biological value, providing key amino acids needed for protein synthesis. Raw egg whites contain Avidin which binds to biotin (B vitamin) to make it unavailable to the pet. Therefore, it is not recommended to feed pets raw eggs.

Enterococcus faecium
See Live Micro-organism


Ferrous Proteinate
A source of chelated iron. The iron from ferrous proteinate is highly available while the iron from ferrous sulfate is less so. Of note is the fact that iron from iron oxide is not easily available but is often found in some pet foods as a coloring agent.

Ferrous Sulfate
A source of dietary iron, required for formation of the hemoglobin in blood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body.

Whole Canadian flax seeds provide essential omega-3 fatty acids for control of the immune system and prevention of disease. Also provides dietary fiber, proteins and other nutrients essential for health.

Folic Acid
One of the B vitamins, acts as a co-enzyme to support formation of DNA within the cells, as well as use of proteins from the diet to maintain body tissues.


Glucosamine Hydrochloride
With Chondroitin, works to form the building blocks of joint tissue, repair damage, attract fluids to the area to maintain mobility and has anti-inflammatory actions.


Herring(Deboned Fresh)
Herring is the clean tissue of undecomposed whole herring or herring parts. It is a source of protein and long chain omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for healthy skin and coat, proper body function and enhanced learning of young puppies.

Herring Oil
Herring oil is the oil extracted from whole or parts of herring. It is one of the best sources of long chain omega 3 fatty acids such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) which are critical for healthy skin and coat, proper body function and enhanced brain and eye development in young animals. DHA is also helpful in promoting cognitive function in older animals.


Promotes healthy cell membranes, hair, and immune system. Inositol is a key component of numerous signalling molecules in the body.

Iron Proteinate
Chelated source of iron. The iron from iron proteinate is highly available, provides oxygen to the blood and helps digestion of fatty acids.


Juniper Berry Oil
Promotes kidney function, gastro-intestinal antiseptic.



Kelp Dried Brown
Organic, natural dried kelp from Atlantic Canada is high in available minerals and antioxidants.


Lactobacillus acidophilus
See Live Micro-organism.

Lactobacillus casei
See Live Micro-organism.

Lamb (Deboned Fresh)
The clean flesh derived from lambs and is limited to that part of the striated muscle which is skeletal or that which is found in the tongue, or heart, with or without the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of the skin, sinew, nerve, and blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh. An excellent source of protein.

Lamb Meal
Source of protein and amino acids, also provides some minerals (calcium and phosphorus). Well suited for dogs with allergies to other protein sources.

An amino acid-like or vitamin-like compound, it helps to maintain lean body tissues and support muscles by promoting conversion of fats to energy within the cells.

Required for cell fluidity, promotes a healthy coat and nervous system function, and protects cells from oxidation. Also a source of vitamin choline.

Live Micro-organisms
Natural micro-flora (friendly bacteria) that may help the digestion process, thus providing more efficient utilization of food and produce bacteriocins which act as natural antibiotics.

Lysine is an essential amino acid for dogs and cats, which cannot be manufactured by the animal, and must be provided through the diet. It is often the most limiting amino acid in the diet, being particularly low in vegetable protein diets.

A Xanthophyll compound extracted from the Marigold flower, member of the carotenoid group of powerful antioxidants. It targets the cells within the eye to promote healthy vision.


Mangnese Proteinate
A chelated form of essential mineral manganese, required for proper formation of bone structure and maintenance of the joint tissues (cartilage). Manganese also is part of the chemical reactions that produce energy from nutrients in the cells.

Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS)
Extracted from the cells walls of specific types of yeast, MOS are prebiotic fibers that promote healthy digestive tract function, and stimulate the activities of the gut-related immune factors to boost function, reducing effects of pathogenic microorganisms.

Menhaden Fish Meal
Menhaden fish meal is the clean, dried and ground tissue of undecomposed whole menhaden with or without the extraction of part of the oil. It must not contain more than 10% moisture. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, calcium, phosphorus and long chain omega 3 fatty acids which are critical for healthy skin and coat, proper body function and promote brain development in young puppies.

Methionine is an essential amino acid for both dogs and cats. Some protein sources (most notably soybean meal, meat & bone meal and poultry meal) do not provide enough methionine. Therefore, it is often added to pet foods to ensure the animal receives enough.

Millet/Pearl Millet /Ground Millet (GI 63)
Ground millet is the entire product obtained in grinding millet, of the pearl variety. It is a nutritious grain that is high in fiber and B-complex vitamins: niacin, thiamin, riboflavin.

Mixed Tocopherols
This a mixture of differing forms of vitamin E most often used as a preservative or antioxidant to stabilize fats to prevent them from becoming rancid. Their stabilizing effect depends on the type of fat used.


Natural Flavor
From fresh meat sources, natural flavours enhance the palatability of the diets, and may also provide some essential amino acids and other nutrients.

Also known as vitamin B3, niacin is used to form coenzymes which support the replacement of cells. It is also a part of the body’s own protective systems, reducing the damages caused by free radicals.


Oatmeal (GI 53)
Oatmeal is obtained in the manufacture of rolled oat groats or rolled oats, and consists of broken oat groats, oat groat chips and floury portions of the oat groats with only such quantity of finely ground oat hulls as is unavoidable in the usual process of commercial milling. Oatmeal is an excellent source of highly digestible carbohydrates, protein and nutritional fiber.

Oat Fiber
Oat fiber is a purified form of fiber extracted from oat hulls. It is an excellent source of both soluble and insoluble fiber.

Olive Oil
Olive oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the olive. Olive oil is regarded as a healthful dietary oil because of its high content of monounsaturated fat (mainly oleic fatty acid, an omega 9 fatty acid) and polyphenols. It is a blend of virgin oil and refined virgin oil. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.

Omega 6 Fatty Acids
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), which have their first double carbon bond at the 6th position in their chain, the n-6 position. Some of these fatty acids are essential to the metabolism, they cannot be made by the body, such as Linoleic Acid (18:2 n-6).

Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), which have their first double carbon bond at the 3rd position in their chain, the n-3 position. Some of these fatty acids are essential to the metabolism, they cannot be made by the body, such as Linolenic Acid (18:3 n-3), or not in sufficient quantities to promote maximum health, such as Docosahexaenoic Acid DHA (C22:6 n-3).

Omega 9 Fatty Acids
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), which have their first double carbon bond at the 9th position in their chain, the n-9 position. In pets, omega-9 fatty acids such as Oleic Acid (C18:1 n-9) can be beneficial in sparing the other essential fatty acids.


Papain (from Papaya)
see Digestive Enzymes

A root vegetable, similar to carrots, but with higher levels of some essential nutrients such as potassium, vitamin C and folate. They are a good source of dietary fiber.

Peas (GI 53)
Canadian grown peas are naturally non-GMO (genetically modified organisms), and require a lower environmental footprint to grow, as they need less fertilizer application and lower maintenance. The carbohydrates provided by peas have an excellent Glycemic Index value (53), beneficial to promoting healthy blood sugar profiles. Peas are also an excellent source of protein and fiber.

Pea starch
Made from processed peas, pea starch is used to create a kibble texture that is hard and crunchy, promoting proper physical action against the teeth for cleaning.

Pea Protein
Made from peas, the protein portion is extracted to create a low ash source of protein that provides essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine.

Phosphoric Acid
A mineral acid, helps to create an acidified urine pH, which is important for prevention of Feline Urinary Tract Disorders.

A highly nutritious fruit, contains some of the highest levels of antioxidant polyphenols. These compounds protect cells from damaging oxidation reactions that result in disease and aging.

Potassium Chloride
A potassium supplement typically found in pet food. Potassium is important in helping the pet maintain proper acid-base balance within the cells, and is part of energy production.

Potatoes are whole, freshly cooked potatoes that include the skins. Potatoes provide B vitamins, carbohydrates, zinc, vitamin C, copper, iron, magnesium, niacin and potassium.

Pork Meal
Cooked, dehydrated pork from Canadian sources, with water content reduced. Digestible and palatable source of proteins, provides essential amino acids and balanced levels of calcium and phosphorus.

Prebiotics are functional sources of fiber, that provide nutrition for the naturally occurring "good" microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract and enhance gut related immune function. These include Chicory Root extract (a source of Fructooligosaccharides) and Mannoligosaccharides. Useful to boost the effectiveness of probiotics.

Micro-organisms that are naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, which promote proper digestion, supply key nutrients and play an important role in the immune functions found within the gastrointestinal tract. By feeding probiotics, the "good" populations of microbes are replenished, and the "bad" microbes can be reduced.

Fresh, whole pumpkins are a source of dietary fiber and contains antioxidants such as beta-carotene.

Pyridoxine Hydrochloride
Vitamin B6, pyridoxine acts to support the production of new red and white blood cells, hormones and other signaling molecules, and enzymes that allow for digestion of food.


Quinoa (GI 53)
One of the "ancient" grains, a source of carbohydrate energy that is palatable and provides quality protein and a well balanced amino acid profile. It is gluten free, and is easily digested.


Fresh raspberries are rich in polyphenol antioxidants, vitamin C and dietary fiber.

Vitamin B2, riboflavin acts in the process of digestion and energy production. It also supports proper immune cell and blood cell formation.

Rice Bran
Rice bran is the bran layer and germ of whole brown rice with only such quantity of hull fragments chipped or broken rice as is unavoidable in the regular milling of edible rice. An excellent source of both soluble and insoluble fiber.

Rosemary Extract
Rosemary is a highly effective natural preservative high in antioxidants.


Salmon (Deboned Fresh)
Fresh, deboned whole salmon, from wild and farmed fish sources. Salmon provides proteins and fats, and is high in essential omega fatty acids. It is a hypoallergenic protein source, less likely to trigger allergic reactions in dogs and cats.

Salmon Meal
Dehydrated salmon meat, it is a source of highly digestible proteins, rich in essential amino acids for both dogs and cats. Salmon meal also contains high levels of omega fatty acids such as DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) for support of vision and brain development.

Salt/Sodium Chloride
A sodium and chloride supplement typically found in pet food, providing these two essential minerals. Sodium and chloride are important in helping the pet maintain proper fluid balance, regulating thirst and urinary excretion of waste materials.

Salmon Oil
Salmon oil is high in longer chain omega 3 fatty acids, specifically EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid). These are used by the body to manufacture signals that control the immune system’s responses and inflammation.

Sodium Selenite
A source of the mineral selenium, which acts as a key component of the body's own antioxidant systems to protect cells from damage by free radicals. Works with vitamin E to protect cells.

Spinach is exceptionally rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene and lutein, and also contains quercetin, a phytochemical with antioxidant properties. Spinach is also a good source of magnesium and manganese.

Originally native to North America squash were used as food in Mexico as early as 5,000 BC. The colonists of New England adopted the name squash, a word derived from several Native American words for the vegetable . Squash or zucchini is an excellent source of beta carotene, vitamin C and potassium.

Sweet Potatoes (GI 53)
Sweet Potatoes are excellent source of complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and beta carotene antioxidants. The starch in sweet potatoes converts to sugar easily and provides quick energy. Sweet potatoes are not part of the "Night Shade" family.


An amino acid that is essential in cats, it also can be helpful in some dogs for prevention of heart diseases such as dilated cardiomyopathy. Taurine also plays a role in protection of cells with it's antioxidant properties.

An amino acid normally found in protein structures, dietarily essential to dogs and cats as they cannot manufacture it within the body.

Thiamin Mononitrate
Vitamin B1, thiamine is a part of the reactions which generate energy in the cells. It is also a part of nerve cell transmission, allowing signals to be sent through the nervous system.

Stress Reduction, Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Flavor benefits, Antioxidant

Tomato Pomace
A source of fiber, this is the product remaining after the removal of the flesh portions of tomatoes during production of tomato products. High in lycopenes, a powerful antioxidant component that reduce oxidative stress in the body's cellular structure.

Whole tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and especially rich in the carotenoid lycopene which is an important anti-oxidant.

An amino acid normally found in protein structures and as a precursor to vitamins in the body. It is dietarily essential to dogs and cats as they cannot make enough within the body to support normal function. Part of the synthesis of compounds such as melatonin, signaling the brain for normal sleep and waking patterns.

Turkey (Deboned Fresh)
Turkey is the clean combination of skin and flesh without the bone derived from whole turkeys. It is an excellent source of high quality protein and essential fatty acids.


Venison (Deboned Fresh)
The clean flesh derived from deer and is limited to that part of the striate muscle which is skeletal with or without the accompanying and overlying fat and the portions of the skin, sinew, nerve, and blood vessels which normally accompany the flesh. Venison is an excellent source of protein.

Vitamin A
Supporting vision, deficiency of vitamin A can result in night blindness. It also prevents skin problems and provides for resistance to diseases and infections.

Vitamin B12
Acts as a co-enzyme in the synthesis of proteins for muscle and tissue maintenance, as well as manufacture of red blood cells to prevent anaemia.

Vitamin D
Important role in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus minerals, and controls their amounts within the body to ensure proper bone structure.

Vitamin E
A fat soluble vitamin, it works in the cell membranes to protect them from free radical damage.

Vitamin K
A cofactor with enzymes, it is involved in protein use, incorporation of calcium into bones and in blood clotting for prevention of hemorrhage. (AAFCO requires for cat)


Wheat (GI 53)
Wheat is a grain which primarily is used as a source of carbohydrates. It is also an inexpensive source of protein and fat. The more processed the wheat, the more digestible, i.e.: ground wheat will be more digestible than whole wheat.

Whitefish Meal
From whole whitefish, the dehydrated meal form sourced from North American. Whitefish meal provides concentrated protein sources with available amino acids, as well as dietary fatty acids.


Yucca Schidigera Extract
From the Mohave Yucca Schidigera plant, this extract contains compounds that bind odors in the feces. Also contains anti-inflammatory compounds.


A part of the gourd family, fresh whole zucchini provides a source of vitamin C and the antioxidant lutein, important to protection of the eyes from oxidative damage.

Zinc Proteinate
A chelated source of available zinc, this trace mineral supports the manufacture of molecules in the skin and coat, healthy hair growth and scar tissue formation in the case of injury.

Zinc Sulphate
A source of bioavailable zinc, a trace mineral required for skin and coat health. It is also part of the system that allows for use of vitamin A, and important to reproductive health.